Mammalian Byproducts

A Guide for People with Alpha-gal Syndrome

When patients continue to have reactions after removal of all obvious forms of alpha-gal from their diet, we turn to the ‘hidden’ forms of mammalian exposure despite little or even no evidence that such moieties actually contain alpha-gal. In many cases, it is challenging to make informed assessment of risk based on the available data and we approach the avoidance diet on an individual patient basis. We know from experience with childhood food allergies that some patients can tolerate foods with ‘processed in’ or ‘may contain’ labels and this characteristic appears to hold consistent for AGS. Equally, there may be some evidence that patients on a strict avoidance diet could experience anaphylaxis after ingestion of minimal amount of allergen and this has mirrored our overall clinical experience. (1)

Scott Commins, MD, PhD

University of North Carolina

Russian Roulette

Unknown Risks to Unknown Ingredients

 

A minority of people with alpha-gal syndrome cannot tolerate even trace amounts of alpha-gal found in foods made with some mammalian byproducts. For this segment of our population, avoiding foods and other products that can trigger reactions is difficult and fraught with uncertainty. Complicating factors include:

  • Mammalian byproducts are in an untold number of foods, personal care and household products, as well as tens of thousands of pharmaceutical and other medical products.
  • Alpha-gal reactions tend to be severe. Up to 60% of people with AGS have anaphylactic reactions, and 30-40% experience cardiac symptoms. Anaphylactic reactions to mammalian byproducts in foods, drugs, and other pharmaceuticals have been well-documented, and reactions to personal care and household products are routinely reported within the alpha-gal community.
  • Evidence for the presence or absence of alpha-gal in most mammalian byproducts is lacking (1). We know that for some, like bovine serum albumin, alpha-gal has not been detected (2). In the absence of more information, the most reactive of us have little choice but to avoid all mammal-derived ingredients or play Russian roulette.
  • Mammalian byproducts are numerous and have obscure names, like oleic acid and arachidyl proprionate.
  • There is no list of mammalian byproducts, and in the absence of federal or industry assistance, it is virtually impossible to create a complete one.
  • There are no regulatory requirements for the labeling of foods with mammalian content.
  • 3-5% of people with AGS go on to develop mast cell syndromes (1), and for this group, it’s not always obvious whether reactions are triggered by trace amounts of alpha-gal or are related to mast cell issues.

Up to 3% of the population in huge swathes of the U.S. are estimated to have clinical alpha-gal syndrome (1), including anaphylactic reactions (2)–easily over a million people. We need the FDA (and/or USDA where appropriate) to:

  • Add alpha-gal to the list of major food allergens regulated under the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 (FALCPA)
  • Produce a complete and regularly updated list of all mammalian byproducts and regulate their naming
  • Regulate the use of the terms “vegan” and “plant-based” in the labeling of both traditionally produced and cell-based products and restrict producers and manufacturers from using them on products that contain mammalian ingredients
  • Require the disclosure of the use of mammalian byproducts (and carrageenan which also contains alpha-gal) as processing agents, such as the use of gelatin in the clarification of juice and wine and the addition of carrageenan to fish as a water retention agent prior to processing or as a spray on fresh cut fruit.
  • Support the creation of a complete, regularly updated, and publicly accessible database of pharmaceuticals and other medical products (including vaccines, bandages, sutures, lubricants, etc.) listing mammal-derived ingredients and identifying them as such.   Anaphylactic reactions to carrageenan in medical products have been documented, and carrageenan content should be included.
  • Expedite the approval of products, including cell-based products, produced using alpha-gal-free livestock, such as the GalSafe pig, and cell lines.

A Guide for the Highly Reactive: tips on avoiding alpha-gal and identifying your triggers. Coming soon!

A Partial List of Mammalian Byproducts

Edited by Sheila Beaudry

 

  • This list was adapted from the PETA Animal-Derived Ingredients List; ingredients not potentially derived from mammals were removed.
  • This is only a preliminary list of ingredients, with an emphasis on those used in foods. This list is the tip of the iceberg: there are dozens if not hundreds of additional mammalian byproducts used in foods, medications, and other products, but we hope it will help you begin to familiarize yourself with potential triggers.
  • Many of the below ingredients can be derived from either mammalian or non-mammalian sources.
  • The alpha-gal content of the vast majority of these byproducts has not been established. 
  • If you are unsure if an ingredient in a product is derived from a mammal, contact the manufacturers and ask, although often they do not know either.
  • If you see an ingredient that is NOT on this list, and you don’t recognize it, you need to research it yourself.
  • In the U.S., the term “vegan” is not regulated by the FDA and is no guarantee that a product is mammal-free, but vegan “certified” products are safer. To learn more about interpreting vegan labeling, see Darcie Clement’s explanation here.
  • Keep in mind that carrageenan also contains alpha-gal and also is listed under a variety of different names. Carrageenan will be dealt with on another page Carrageenan: A Guide for People with Alpha-gal Syndrome  (coming soon).
  • To learn more about available ingredient lists and the virtually insurmountable challenge of creating a comprehensive list in the absence of support from the livestock industry or federal government, read Darcie Clement’s excellent blog post on the subject here.

Adrenaline. Hormone from adrenal glands of hogs, cattle, and sheep. In medicine. Alternatives: synthetics.

Alanine. (See Amino Acids.)

Albumin.

(See Albumen.)

Alcloxa.

(See Allantoin.)

Aldioxa.

(See Allantoin.)

Aliphatic Alcohol.

(See Lanolin and Vitamin A.)

Allantoin.

Uric acid from cows, most mammals. Also in many plants (especially comfrey). In cosmetics (especially creams and lotions) and used in treatment of wounds and ulcers. Derivatives: Alcloxa, Aldioxa. Alternatives: extract of comfrey root, synthetics.

Alpha-Hydroxy Acids.

Any one of several acids used as an exfoliant and in anti-wrinkle products. Lactic acid may be animal-derived (see Lactic Acid). Alternatives: glycolic acid, citric acid, and salicylic acid are plant- or fruit-derived.

Ambergris.

From whale intestines. Used as a fixative in making perfumes and as a flavoring in foods and beverages. Alternatives: synthetic or vegetable fixatives.

Amerchol L101.

(See Lanolin.)

Amino Acids.

The building blocks of protein in all animals and plants. In cosmetics, vitamins, supplements, shampoos, etc. Alternatives: synthetics, plant sources.

Angora.

Hair from the Angora rabbit or goat. Used in clothing. Alternatives: synthetic fibers.

Animal Fats and Oils.

In foods, cosmetics, etc. Highly allergenic. Alternatives: olive oil, wheat germ oil, coconut oil, flaxseed oil, almond oil, safflower oil, etc.

Animal Hair.

In some blankets, mattresses, brushes, furniture, etc. Alternatives: vegetable and synthetic fibers.

Arachidonic Acid.

A liquid unsaturated fatty acid that is found in liver, brain, glands, and fat of animals and humans. Generally isolated from animal liver. Used in companion animal food for nutrition and in skin creams and lotions to soothe eczema and rashes. Alternatives: synthetics, aloe vera, tea tree oil, calendula ointment.

Arachidyl Proprionate.

A wax that can be from animal fat. Alternatives: peanut or vegetable oil.

Biotin. Vitamin H. Vitamin B Factor.

In every living cell and in larger amounts in milk and yeast. Used as a texturizer in cosmetics, shampoos, and creams. Alternatives: plant sources.

Blood.

From any slaughtered animal. Used as adhesive in plywood, also found in cheese-making, foam rubber, intravenous feedings, and medicines. Possibly in foods such as lecithin. Alternatives: synthetics, plant sources.

Boar Bristles.

Hair from wild or captive hogs. In “natural” toothbrushes and bath and shaving brushes. Alternatives: vegetable fibers, nylon, the peelu branch or peelu gum (Asian, available in the U.S.; its juice replaces toothpaste).

Bone Char.

Animal bone ash. Used in bone china and often to make sugar white. Serves as the charcoal used in aquarium filters. Alternatives: synthetic tribasic calcium phosphate.

Bone Meal.

Crushed or ground animal bones. In some fertilizers. In some vitamins and supplements as a source of calcium. In toothpastes. Alternatives: plant mulch, vegetable compost, dolomite, clay, vegetarian vitamins.

Calciferol.

(See Vitamin D.)

Calfskin.

(See Leather.)

Caprylamine Oxide.

(See Caprylic Acid.)

Capryl Betaine.

(See Caprylic Acid.)

Caprylic Acid.

A liquid fatty acid from cow’s or goat’s milk. Also from palm, coconut, and other plant oils. In perfumes, soaps. Derivatives: Caprylic Triglyceride, Caprylamine Oxide, Capryl Betaine. Alternatives: plant sources, especially coconut oil.

Caprylic Triglyceride.

(See Caprylic Acid.)

Carbamide.

(See Urea.)

Carotene. Provitamin A. Beta Carotene.

A pigment found in many animal tissues and in all plants. When used as an additive, typically derived from plant sources. Used as a coloring in cosmetics and in the manufacture of vitamin A.

Casein. Caseinate. Sodium Caseinate.

Milk protein. In “nondairy” creamers, soy cheese, many cosmetics, hair preparations, beauty masks. Alternatives: soy protein, soy milk, and other vegetable milks.

Caseinate.

(See Casein.)

Cashmere.

Wool from the Kashmir goat. Used in clothing. Alternatives: synthetic fibers.

Castor. Castoreum.

Creamy substance with strong odor, originally from muskrat and beaver genitals but now typically synthetic. Used as a fixative in perfume and incense. While some cosmetics companies continue to use animal castor, the majority do not.

Castoreum.

(See Castor.)

Catgut.

Tough string from the intestines of sheep, horses, etc. Used for surgical sutures. Also for stringing tennis rackets, musical instruments, etc. Alternatives: nylon and other synthetic fibers.

Cerebrosides.

Fatty acids and sugars found in the covering of nerves. May be synthetic or of animal origin. When animal-derived, may include tissue from brain. Used in moisturizers.

Cetyl Alcohol.

Wax originally found in spermaceti from sperm whales or dolphins but now most often derived from petroleum. Alternatives: vegetable cetyl alcohol (e.g., coconut), synthetic spermaceti.

Cetyl Palmitate.

(See Spermaceti.)

Cholesterin.

(See Lanolin.)

Cholesterol.

A steroid alcohol in all animal fats and oils, nervous tissue, egg yolk, and blood. Can be derived from lanolin. In cosmetics, eye creams, shampoos, etc. Alternatives: solid complex alcohols (sterols) from plant sources.

Choline Bitartrate.

(See Lecithin.)

Civet.

Unctuous secretion painfully scraped from a gland very near the genital organs of civet cats. Used as a fixative in perfumes. Alternatives: (See alternatives to Musk.)

Collagen.

Fibrous protein in vertebrates. Usually derived from animal tissue. Can’t affect the skin’s own collagen. An allergen. Alternatives: soy protein, almond oil, amla oil (see alternatives to Keratin), etc.

Colors. Dyes.

Pigments from animal, plant, and synthetic sources used to color foods, cosmetics, and other products. Cochineal is from insects. Widely used FD&C and D&C colors are coal-tar (bituminous coal) derivatives that are continuously tested on animals because of their carcinogenic properties. Alternatives: grapes, beets, turmeric, saffron, carrots, chlorophyll, annatto, alkanet.

Corticosteroid.

(See Cortisone.)

Cortisone. Corticosteroid.

When animal-derived, a hormone from adrenal glands. However, a synthetic is widely used. Typically used in medicine. Alternatives: synthetics.

Cysteine, L-Form.

An amino acid from hair that can come from animals. Used in hair-care products and creams, in some bakery products, and in wound-healing formulations. Alternatives: plant sources.

Cystine.

An amino acid found in urine and horsehair. Used as a nutritional supplement and in emollients. Alternatives: plant sources.

Dexpanthenol.

(See Panthenol.)

Diglycerides.

(See Monoglycerides and Glycerin.)

Dimethyl Stearamine.

(See Stearic Acid.)

Duodenum Substances.

From the digestive tracts of cows and pigs. Added to some vitamin tablets. In some medicines. Alternatives: vegetarian vitamins, synthetics.

Dyes.

(See Colors.)

Elastin.

Protein found in the neck ligaments and aortas of cows. Similar to collagen. Can’t affect the skin’s own elasticity. Alternatives: synthetics, protein from plant tissues.

Ergocalciferol.

(See Vitamin D.)

Ergosterol.

(See Vitamin D.)

Estradiol.

(See Estrogen.)

Estrogen. Estradiol.

Female hormones from pregnant mares’ urine. Considered a drug. Can have harmful systemic effects if used by children. Used for reproductive problems and in birth control pills and Premarin, a menopausal drug. In creams, perfumes, and lotions. Has a negligible effect in the creams as a skin restorative; simple vegetable-source emollients are considered better. Alternatives: oral contraceptives and menopausal drugs based on synthetic steroids or phytoestrogens (from plants, especially palm-kernel oil). Menopausal symptoms can also be treated with diet and herbs.

Fats.

(See Animal Fats.)

Fatty Acids.

Can be one or any mixture of liquid and solid acids such as caprylic, lauric, myristic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic. Used in bubble baths, lipsticks, soap, detergents, cosmetics, food. Alternatives: vegetable-derived acids, soy lecithin, safflower oil, bitter almond oil, sunflower oil, etc.

FD&C Colors.

(See Colors.)

Fish Oil.

(See Marine Oil.) Fish oil can also be from marine mammals. Used in soapmaking.

Fur.

Obtained from animals (usually mink, foxes, or rabbits) cruelly trapped in steel-jaw traps or raised in intensive confinement on fur farms. Alternatives: synthetics. (See Sable Brushes.)

Gel.

(See Gelatin.)

Gelatin. Gel.

Protein obtained by boiling skin, tendons, ligaments, and/or bones in water. From cows and pigs. Used in shampoos, face masks, and other cosmetics. Used as a thickener for fruit gelatins and puddings (e.g., Jell-O). In candies, marshmallows, cakes, ice cream, and yogurts. Also in gummy supplements, and in medications and supplements as a coating and as capsules. Sometimes used to assist in clarification of wines.

Glucose Tyrosinase.

(See Tyrosine.)

Glycerides.

(See Glycerin.)

Glycerin. Glycerol.

A byproduct of soap manufacture (normally uses animal fat). In cosmetics, foods, mouthwashes, chewing gum, toothpastes, soaps, ointments, medicines, lubricants, transmission and brake fluid, and plastics. Derivatives: Glycerides, Glyceryls, Glycreth-26, Polyglycerol. Alternatives: vegetable glycerin (a byproduct of vegetable oil soap), derivatives of seaweed, petroleum.

Glycerol.

(See Glycerin.)

Glyceryls.

(See Glycerin.)

Glycreth-26.

(See Glycerin.)

Hide Glue.

Same as gelatin but of a cruder impure form. Alternatives: dextrins and synthetic petrochemical-based adhesives. (See Gelatin.)

Horsehair.

(See Animal Hair.)

Hyaluronic Acid.

When animal-derived, a protein found in umbilical cords and the fluids around the joints. Used in cosmetics and some medical applications. Alternatives: synthetic hyaluronic acid, plant oils.

Hydrocortisone.

(See Cortisone.)

Hydrolyzed Animal Protein.

In cosmetics, especially shampoo and hair treatments. Alternatives: soy protein, other vegetable proteins, amla oil (see alternatives to Keratin).

Imidazolidinyl Urea.

(See Urea.)

Insulin.

From hog pancreas. Used by millions of diabetics daily. Alternatives: synthetics, vegetarian diet and nutritional supplements, human insulin grown in a lab.

Isopropyl Lanolate.

(See Lanolin.)

Isopropyl Myristate.

(See Myristic Acid.)

Isopropyl Palmitate.

Complex mixtures of isomers of stearic acid and palmitic acid. (See Stearic Acid.)

Keratin.

Protein from the ground-up horns, hooves, feathers, quills, and hair of various animals. In hair rinses, shampoos, permanent wave solutions. Alternatives: almond oil, soy protein, amla oil (from the fruit of an Indian tree), human hair from salons. Rosemary and nettle give body and strand strength to hair.

Lactic Acid.

Typically derived from plants such as beets. When animal-derived, found in blood and muscle tissue. Also in sour milk, beer, sauerkraut, pickles, and other food products made by bacterial fermentation. Used in skin fresheners, as a preservative, in the formation of plasticizers, etc. Alternatives: plant milk sugars, synthetics.

Lactose.

Milk sugar from milk of mammals. In eye lotions, foods, tablets, cosmetics, baked goods, medicines. Alternatives: plant milk sugars.

Laneth.

(See Lanolin.)

Lanogene.

(See Lanolin.)

Lanolin. Lanolin Acids. Wool Fat. Wool Wax.

A product of the oil glands of sheep, extracted from their wool. Used as an emollient in many skin-care products and cosmetics and in medicines. An allergen with no proven effectiveness. (See Wool for cruelty to sheep.) Derivatives: Aliphatic Alcohols, Cholesterin, Isopropyl Lanolate, Laneth, Lanogene, Lanolin Alcohols, Lanosterols, Sterols, Triterpene Alcohols. Alternatives: plant and vegetable oils.

Lanolin Alcohol.

(See Lanolin.)

Lanosterols.

(See Lanolin.)

Lard.

Fat from hog abdomens. In shaving creams, soaps, cosmetics. In baked goods, French fries, refried beans, and many other foods. Alternatives: pure vegetable fats or oils.

Leather. Suede. Calfskin. Sheepskin. Alligator Skin. Other Types of Skin.

Subsidizes the meat industry. Used to make wallets, handbags, furniture and car upholstery, shoes, etc. Alternatives: cotton, canvas, nylon, vinyl, ultrasuede, pleather, other synthetics.

Lecithin. Choline Bitartrate.

Waxy substance in nervous tissue of all living organisms. But frequently obtained for commercial purposes from eggs and soybeans. Also from nerve tissue, blood, milk, corn. Choline bitartrate, the basic constituent of lecithin, is in many animal and plant tissues and prepared synthetically. Lecithin can be in eye creams, lipsticks, liquid powders, hand creams, lotions, soaps, shampoos, other cosmetics, and some medicines. Alternatives: soybean lecithin, synthetics.

Linoleic Acid.

An essential fatty acid. Used in cosmetics, vitamins. Alternatives: (See alternatives to Fatty Acids.)

Lipase.

Enzyme from the stomachs and tongue glands of calves, kids, and lambs. Used in cheesemaking and in digestive aids. Alternatives: vegetable enzymes, castor beans.

Lipids.

(See Lipoids.)

Lipoids. Lipids.

Fat and fat-like substances that are found in animals and plants. Alternatives: vegetable oils.

Marine Oil.

From fish or marine mammals (including porpoises). Used in soapmaking. Used as a shortening (especially in some margarines), as a lubricant, and in paint. Alternatives: vegetable oils.

Methionine.

Essential amino acid found in various proteins (usually from egg albumen and casein). Used as a texturizer and for freshness in potato chips. Alternatives: synthetics.

Milk Protein.

Hydrolyzed milk protein. From the milk of cows. In cosmetics, shampoos, moisturizers, conditioners, etc. Alternatives: soy protein, other plant proteins.

Mink Oil.

From minks. In cosmetics, creams, etc. Alternatives: vegetable oils and emollients such as avocado oil, almond oil, and jojoba oil.

Monoglycerides. Glycerides. (See Glycerin.)

From animal fat. In margarines, cake mixes, candies, foods, etc. In cosmetics. Alternative: vegetable glycerides.

Musk (Oil).

Dried secretion painfully obtained from musk deer, beaver, muskrat, civet cat, and otter genitals. Wild cats are kept captive in cages in horrible conditions and are whipped around the genitals to produce the scent; beavers are trapped; deer are shot. In perfumes and in food flavorings. Alternatives: labdanum oil (from various rockrose shrubs) and extracts from other plants with a musky scent.

Myristal Ether Sulfate.

(See Myristic Acid.)

Myristic Acid.

Organic acid typically derived from nut oils but occasionally of animal origin. Used in shampoos, creams, cosmetics. In food flavorings. Derivatives: Isopropyl Myristate, Myristal Ether Sulfate, Myristyls, Oleyl Myristate. Alternatives: nut butters, oil of lovage, coconut oil, extract from seed kernels of nutmeg, etc.

Myristyls.

(See Myristic Acid.)

“Natural Sources.”

Can mean animal or vegetable sources. Most often in the health-food industry, especially in the cosmetics area, it means animal sources, such as animal elastin, glands, fat, protein, and oil. Alternatives: plant sources.

Nucleic Acids.

In the nucleus of all living cells. Used in cosmetics, shampoos, conditioners, etc. Also in vitamins, supplements. Alternatives: plant sources.

Octyl Dodecanol.

Mixture of solid waxy alcohols. Primarily from stearyl alcohol. (See Stearyl Alcohol.)

Oleic Acid.

Obtained from various animal and vegetable fats and oils. Usually obtained commercially from inedible tallow. (See Tallow.) In foods, soft soap, bar soap, permanent wave solutions, creams, nail polish, lipsticks, many other skin preparations. Derivatives: Oleyl Oleate, Oleyl Stearate. Alternatives: coconut oil. (See alternatives to Animal Fats and Oils.)

Oils.

(See alternatives to Animal Fats and Oils.)

Oleyl Myristate.

(See Myristic Acid.)

Oleyl Oleate.

(See Oleic Acid.)

Oleyl Stearate.

(See Oleic Acid.)

Palmitamide.

(See Palmitic Acid.)

Palmitamine.

(See Palmitic Acid.)

Palmitate.

(See Palmitic Acid.)

Palmitic Acid.

A fatty acid most commonly derived from palm oil but may be derived from animals as well. In shampoos, shaving soaps, creams. Derivatives: Palmitate, Palmitamine, Palmitamide. Alternatives: vegetable sources.

Panthenol. Dexpanthenol. Vitamin B-Complex Factor. Provitamin B-5.

Can come from animal or plant sources or synthetics. In shampoos, supplements, emollients, etc. In foods. Derivative: Panthenyl. Alternatives: synthetics, plants.

Panthenyl.

(See Panthenol.)

Pepsin.

In hogs’ stomachs. A clotting agent. In some cheeses and vitamins. Same uses and alternatives as Rennet.

Placenta. Placenta Polypeptides Protein. Afterbirth.

Contains waste matter eliminated by the fetus. Derived from the uterus of slaughtered animals. Animal placenta is widely used in skin creams, shampoos, masks, etc. Alternatives: kelp. (See alternatives to Animal Fats and Oils.)

Polyglycerol.

(See Glycerin.)

Polypeptides.

From animal protein. Used in cosmetics. Alternatives: plant proteins and enzymes.

Polysorbates.

Derivatives of fatty acids. In cosmetics, foods.

Pristane.

Obtained from the liver oil of sharks and from whale ambergris. (See Squalene, Ambergris.) Used as a lubricant and anti-corrosive agent. In cosmetics. Alternatives: plant oils, synthetics.

Progesterone.

A steroid hormone used in anti-wrinkle face creams. Can have adverse systemic effects. Alternatives: synthetics.

Provitamin A.

(See Carotene.)

Provitamin B-5.

(See Panthenol.)

Provitamin D-2.

(See Vitamin D.)

Rennet. Rennin.

Enzyme from calves’ stomachs. Used in cheesemaking, rennet custard (junket), and in many coagulated dairy products. Alternatives: microbial coagulating agents, bacteria culture, lemon juice, or vegetable rennet.

Rennin.

(See Rennet.)

Retinol.

Animal-derived vitamin A. Alternative: carotene.

Ribonucleic Acid.

(See RNA.)

RNA. Ribonucleic Acid.

RNA is in all living cells. Used in many protein shampoos and cosmetics. Alternatives: plant cells.

Sable Brushes.

From the fur of sables (weasel-like mammals). Used to make eye makeup, lipstick, and artists’ brushes. Alternatives: synthetic fibers.

Sheepskin.

(See Leather.)

Sodium Caseinate.

(See Casein.)

Sodium Steroyl Lactylate.

(See Lactic Acid.)

Sodium Tallowate.

(See Tallow.)

Spermaceti. Cetyl Palmitate. Sperm Oil.

Waxy oil originally derived from the sperm whale’s head or from dolphins but now most often derived from petroleum. In many margarines. In skin creams, ointments, shampoos, candles, etc. Used in the leather industry. May become rancid and cause irritations. Alternatives: synthetic spermaceti, jojoba oil, and other vegetable emollients.

Stearamide.

(See Stearic Acid.)

Stearamine.

(See Stearic Acid.)

Stearamine Oxide.

(See Stearyl Alcohol.)

Stearates.

(See Stearic Acid.)

Stearic Acid.

When animal-derived, a fat from cows, pigs, and sheep and from dogs and cats euthanized in animal shelters, etc. May also be of plant origin, including from cocoa butter and shea butter. Can be harsh, irritating. Used in cosmetics, soaps, lubricants, candles, hairspray, conditioners, deodorants, creams, chewing gum, food flavoring. Derivatives: Stearamide, Stearamine, Stearates, Stearic Hydrazide, Stearone, Stearoxytrimethylsilane, Stearoyl Lactylic Acid, Stearyl Betaine, Stearyl Imidazoline. Alternatives: Stearic acid can be found in many vegetable fats, coconut.

Stearic Hydrazide.

(See Stearic Acid.)

Stearone.

(See Stearic Acid.)

Stearoxytrimethylsilane.

(See Stearic Acid.)

Stearoyl Lactylic Acid.

(See Stearic Acid.)

Stearyl Acetate.

(See Stearyl Alcohol.)

Stearyl Alcohol. Sterols.

A mixture of solid alcohols. Can be prepared from sperm whale oil. In medicines, creams, rinses, shampoos, etc. Derivatives: Stearamine Oxide, Stearyl Acetate, Stearyl Caprylate, Stearyl Citrate, Stearyldimethyl Amine, Stearyl Glycyrrhetinate, Stearyl Heptanoate, Stearyl Octanoate, Stearyl Stearate. Alternatives: plant sources, vegetable stearic acid.

Stearyl Betaine.

(See Stearic Acid.)

Stearyl Caprylate.

(See Stearyl Alcohol.)

Stearyl Citrate.

(See Stearyl Alcohol.)

Stearyldimethyl Amine.

(See Stearyl Alcohol.)

Stearyl Glycyrrhetinate.

(See Stearyl Alcohol.)

Stearyl Heptanoate.

(See Stearyl Alcohol.)

Stearyl Imidazoline.

(See Stearic Acid.)

Stearyl Octanoate.

(See Stearyl Alcohol.)

Stearyl Stearate.

(See Stearyl Alcohol.)

Steroids. Sterols.

From various animal glands or from plant tissues. Steroids include sterols. Sterols are alcohol from animals or plants (e.g., cholesterol). Used in hormone preparation. In creams, lotions, hair conditioners, fragrances, etc. Alternatives: plant tissues, synthetics.

Sterols.

(See Stearyl Alcohol and Steroids.)

Suede.

(See Leather.)

Tallow. Tallow Fatty Alcohol. Stearic Acid.

Rendered beef fat. May cause eczema and blackheads. In wax paper, crayons, margarines, paints, rubber, lubricants, etc. In candles, soaps, lipsticks, shaving creams, other cosmetics. Chemicals (e.g., PCB) can be in animal tallow. Derivatives: Sodium Tallowate, Tallow Acid, Tallow Amide, Tallow Amine, Talloweth-6, Tallow Glycerides, Tallow Imidazoline. Alternatives: vegetable tallow, Japan tallow, paraffin, ceresin (see alternatives to Beeswax). Paraffin is usually from petroleum, wood, coal, or shale oil.

Tallow Acid.

(See Tallow.)

Tallow Amide.

(See Tallow.)

Tallow Amine.

(See Tallow.)

Talloweth-6.

(See Tallow.)

Tallow Glycerides.

(See Tallow.)

Tallow Imidazoline.

(See Tallow.)

Triterpene Alcohols.

(See Lanolin.)

Tyrosine.

Amino acid often of plant or synthetic origin but sometimes hydrolyzed from casein (milk). Used in cosmetics and creams. Derivative: Glucose Tyrosinase.

Urea. Carbamide.

Typically synthetic. When extracted from animals, it is excreted from urine and other bodily fluids. In deodorants, ammoniated dentifrices, mouthwashes, hair colorings, hand creams, lotions, shampoos, etc. Used to “brown” baked goods, such as pretzels. Derivatives: Imidazolidinyl Urea, Uric Acid. Alternatives: synthetics.

Uric Acid.

(See Urea.)

Vitamin A.

Can come from fish liver oil (e.g., shark liver oil), egg yolk, butter, lemongrass, wheat germ oil, carotene in carrots, and synthetics. An aliphatic alcohol. In cosmetics, creams, perfumes, hair dyes, etc. In vitamins, supplements. Alternatives: carrots, other vegetables, synthetics. (Please note that Vitamin A exists in two forms: see also Carotene, Retinol.)

Vitamin B-Complex Factor.

(See Panthenol.)

Vitamin B Factor.

(See Biotin.)

Vitamin B12.

Can come from animal products or bacteria cultures. Twinlab B12 vitamins contain gelatin. Alternatives: vegetarian vitamins, fortified soy milks, nutritional yeast, fortified meat substitutes. Vitamin B12 is often listed as “cyanocobalamin” on food labels. Vegan health professionals caution that vegans get 5–10 mcg/day of vitamin B12 from fortified foods or supplements.

Vitamin D. Ergocalciferol. Vitamin D2. Ergosterol. Provitamin D2. Calciferol. Vitamin D3.

Vitamin D can come from fish liver oil, milk, egg yolks, and other animal products but can also come from plant sources. Vitamin D2 is typically vegan. Vitamin D3 may be from an animal source. All the D vitamins can be in creams, lotions, other cosmetics, vitamin tablets, etc. Alternatives: plant and mineral sources, synthetics, completely vegetarian vitamins, exposure of skin to sunshine.

Vitamin H.

(See Biotin.)

Wax.

Glossy, hard substance that is soft when hot. From animals and plants. In lipsticks, depilatories, hair straighteners. Alternatives: vegetable waxes.

Whey.

A serum from milk. Usually in cakes, cookies, candies, and breads. Used in cheesemaking. Alternatives: soybean whey.

Wool.

From sheep. Used in clothing. Ram lambs and old “wool” sheep are slaughtered for their meat. Sheep are transported without food or water, in extreme heat and cold. Legs are broken, eyes injured, etc. Sheep are bred to be unnaturally woolly and unnaturally wrinkly, which causes them to get insect infestations around the tail areas. The farmer’s solution to this is the painful cutting away of the flesh around the tail (called “mulesing”). “Inferior” sheep are killed. When sheep are sheared, they are pinned down violently and sheared roughly. Their skin is cut up. Every year, hundreds of thousands of shorn sheep die from exposure to cold. Natural predators of sheep (wolves, coyotes, eagles, etc.) are poisoned, trapped, and shot. In the U.S., overgrazing of cattle and sheep is turning more than 150 million acres of land to desert. “Natural” wool production uses enormous amounts of resources and energy (for breeding, rearing, feeding, shearing, transport, slaughter, etc.). Derivatives: Lanolin, Wool Wax, Wool Fat. Alternatives: cotton, cotton flannel, synthetic fibers, ramie, etc.

Wool Fat.

(See Lanolin.)

Wool Wax.

(See Lanolin.)

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