What Is a Mammal?

A Guide for People With Alpha-gal Syndrome

 Mammals

Mammals are animals which produce milk to feed their young. Most are furry, but some–like whales, dolphins, seals, and armadillos–aren’t furry. Many of the mammals we eat have hooves, but some don’t have hooves. 

People with alpha-gal syndrome are allergic to galactose-α-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal), which is found in all mammals except for humans and some monkeys and apes. Alpha-gal is also found in foods and other products made from mammals. These include the meat, organs, blood, fat, and other parts of mammals. If people with alpha-gal syndrome eat these, they can experience severe allergic reactions. Many people with alpha-gal syndrome also react to alpha-gal in milk, dairy products, and gelatin. Some drugs and other medical products contain ingredients made from mammals, and these can also cause severe reactions. People who are highly sensitive to alpha-gal can also react to mammalian byproducts in personal care products, make-up, cleaning products, and fumes from cooking meat and milk.

For more information about mammals see the Wikipedia article on mammals.

*Please note that nobody affiliated with this website advocates eating wildlife of any kind or any other animals depicted on this page. We oppose all illegal hunting, wildlife trafficking, and animal cruelty.

Mammals Eaten All Over the World

Pigs (pork, ham, bacon)

 Cows (ox, bull, beef, veal)

 Sheep (lamb, mutton)

 Goats

⚠ Rabbits and Hares

⚠ Sausages, salami, pâté, and other processed meat products made from beef, pork, lamb or other mammals

⚠ Deer, elk,  and antelope (venison)

⚠ Beef, pork, lamb, mutton, venison and other red meat

⚠ Bacon (pork bacon)

⚠ Sweetbreads (thymus or pancreas)

⚠ Cow’s liver

⚠ Tripe or chitlins (intestines)

Some Mammals Eaten in North America

For more North American mammals species, see the iNaturalist list of North American mammal species.

⚠ Bison (American buffalo)

⚠ Deer and antelope

⚠ Elk

⚠ Moose

⚠ Caribou

⚠ Groundhogs (woodchucks)

⚠ Squirrels

⚠ Javelina and other peccaries

⚠ Beavers and nutrias

⚠ Muskrats

⚠ Raccoons

⚠ Opposums

⚠ Porcupines

⚠ Armadillos

 

⚠ Bears

⚠ Coyotes and foxes

⚠ Wild pigs (feral swine)

⚠ Guinea pigs

⚠ Seals

⚠ Pork rinds

Some Mammals Eaten in Latin America

⚠ Capybaras

⚠ Monkeys

⚠ Peccaries

⚠ Agoutis

⚠ Guinea pigs

⚠ Guinea pigs

⚠ Tapirs

⚠ Pacas

⚠ Javelinas

⚠ Alpacas

⚠ Armadillos

⚠ Brocket deer

Some Mammals Eaten in Europe

⚠ Horses

⚠ Wild boar

⚠ European hares

⚠ Elk (moose)

⚠ Alpine marmots

⚠ Seals

⚠ Roe deer

⚠ Bears

⚠ Red deer

⚠ Kidneys

⚠ Whales

⚠ Blood pudding

Some Mammals Eaten in Africa

⚠ Antelopes

⚠ Camels

⚠ Warthogs

⚠ African buffalo

⚠ Hippopotamus

⚠ Porcupines

⚠ Duikers

⚠ Cane rat stew

Some Mammals Eaten in Asia, Australia, or Pacific Nations

⚠ Kangaroos

⚠ Rats and other rodents

⚠ Guar

⚠ Banteng

⚠ Water buffalo

⚠ Whales

⚠ Bats

⚠ Bats in a market

Some Mammal Pets

Most people with alpha-gal syndrome can keep mammal pets, like cats and dogs. Some are bothered by their saliva and/or dander. Some people report that feeding their pet vegetarian pet food helps reduce their reactions to their saliva. 

⚠ Cats and dogs

⚠ Rats and other rodents

⚠ Rabbits

⚠ Guinea pigs

Animals that Are NOT Mammals

Animals that do NOT produce milk to feed their young are NOT mammals. This includes animals with feathers (birds) and scales (fish and reptiles) and amphibians, like frogs.

People with alpha-gal syndrome can eat these animals and their eggs, except for flounder eggs.

Poultry and other birds are NOT mammals.

✅ Chickens

✅ Turkeys

✅ Ducks

✅ Guinea fowl

✅ Chicken, ducks, and other bird eggs

✅ Turkeys

Fish, amphibians (like frogs and salamanders), and reptiles (like alligators, snakes, and turtles) are NOT mammals. 

✅ Fish

✅ Frogs

✅ Fish eggs, except for flounder roe

✅ Alligators and other crocodilians

s

 

 

  Flounder eggs

Warning: people with AGS may also be allergic to flounder eggs *

✅ Turtles

*Researchers in Japan found that a large percentage of people with red meat allergy are also allergic to flounder roe (1)(2). It’s not clear why. 

Invertebrates, like crustaceans (shrimp, lobster, crawfish), molluscs (oysters, clams, mussels),  and insects are not mammals.

✅ Fish

✅ Lobsters and langoustines

✅ Oysters

✅ Shrimp and prawns

✅ Octopus

✅ Mussels

✅ Grasshoppers

✅ Crabs

✅ Calamari (squid)

✅ Snails and other gastropods

✅ Mopane worms (caterpillars)

✅ Crawfish

✅ Clams

✅ Uni (sea urchin roe)

All the information on alphagalinformation.org is provided in good faith, but we, the creators and authors of the Alpha-gal Information website offer no representation or warranty, explicit or  implied, of the accuracy, adequacy, validity, reliability, availability, or completeness of any information on this site. Under no circumstances should we have any liability for any loss or damage incurred by you as a result of relying on information provided here. We are not physicians or medical professionals, researchers, or experts of any kind. Information provided in this website may contain errors and should be confirmed by a physician. Information provided here is not medical advice. It should not be relied upon for decisions about diagnosis, treatment, diet, food choice, nutrition, or any other health or medical decisions. For advice about health or medical decisions including, but not limited to, diagnosis, treatment, diet, and health care consult a physician.
READ FULL DISCLAIMER>

DISCLAIMER:

DISCLAIMER:

 All the information on alphagalinformation.org (“here” “this site”) is provided in good faith, but we, the creators and authors of the Alpha-gal Information website (“we” “us” or “our”) offer no representation or warranty, explicit or  implied, of the accuracy, adequacy, validity, reliability, availability, or completeness of any information on this site. Under no circumstances should we have any liability for any loss or damage incurred by you as a result of relying on information provided here. The user assumes all risk of using information provided here.

We are not physicians or medical professionals, medical or scientific researchers, or experts of any kind. We are laymen with alpha-gal syndrome with no medical or scientific expertise. The information provided by us on alphagalinformation.org  is provided for general informational purposes only. It may contain errors and should be confirmed by a physician. Information provided here is not medical advice and is not a substitute for the advice of a physician or other medical professional. It should not be relied upon for decisions about diagnosis, treatment, diet, food choice, nutrition, or any other health or medical decisions. For advice about making medical and health-related decisions, consult a physician.  

Alphagalinformation.org may contain links to other websites, embedded information from other websites, links to apps, or other sources of information belonging to or originating with third parties. We do not investigate, monitor, or evaluate information provided by external links or embedded third party features for accuracy, adequacy, validity, reliability, availability, or completeness. We do not warrant, endorse, or guarantee the accuracy of such information. We will not be a party to or in any way responsible for monitoring any transaction between you and any third-party provider of products, services, or information. Under no circumstances should we have any liability for any loss or damage incurred by you as a result of relying on third party information provided here. The user assumes all risk of using information provided here.

No mention of any product or service on this website constitutes an endorsement. We do not endorse any products or services mentioned here. We cannot and do not guarantee that any product or services mentioned here will not harm you, anybody with alpha-gal syndrome, or any other person. We will not be a party to or in any way responsible for monitoring any transaction between you and any third-party provider of products or services. Under no circumstances should we have any liability for any loss or damage incurred by you as a result of the use of third-party products or services. The user assumes all risk of using products and services mentioned or named on alphagalinformation.org or any third party mentioned or connected to through external links or embedded features.

You have Successfully Subscribed!