What Is a Mammal?

A Guide for People With Alpha-gal Syndrome


Mammals are animals which produce milk to feed their young. Most are furry, but some–like whales, dolphins, seals, and armadillos–aren’t furry. Many of the mammals we eat have hooves, but some don’t have hooves. 

People with alpha-gal syndrome are allergic to galactose-α-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal), which is found in all mammals except for humans and some monkeys and apes. Alpha-gal is also found in foods and other products made from mammals. These include the meat, organs, blood, fat, and other parts of mammals. If people with alpha-gal syndrome eat these, they can experience severe allergic reactions. Many people with alpha-gal syndrome also react to alpha-gal in milk, dairy products, and gelatin. Some drugs and other medical products contain ingredients made from mammals, and these can also cause severe reactions. People who are highly sensitive to alpha-gal can also react to mammalian byproducts in personal care products, make-up, cleaning products, and fumes from cooking meat and milk.

For more information about mammals see the Wikipedia article on mammals.

*Please note that nobody affiliated with this website advocates eating wildlife of any kind or any other animals depicted on this page. We oppose all illegal hunting, wildlife trafficking, and animal cruelty.

Mammals Eaten All Over the World

Pigs (pork, ham, bacon)

 Cows (ox, bull, beef, veal)

 Sheep (lamb, mutton)


⚠ Rabbits and Hares

⚠ Sausages, salami, pâté, and other processed meat products made from beef, pork, lamb or other mammals

⚠ Deer, elk,  and antelope (venison)

⚠ Beef, pork, lamb, mutton, venison and other red meat

⚠ Bacon (pork bacon)

⚠ Sweetbreads (thymus or pancreas)

⚠ Cow’s liver

⚠ Tripe or chitlins (intestines)

Some Mammals Eaten in North America

For more North American mammals species, see the iNaturalist list of North American mammal species.

⚠ Bison (American buffalo)

⚠ Deer and antelope

⚠ Elk

⚠ Moose

⚠ Caribou

⚠ Groundhogs (woodchucks)

⚠ Squirrels

⚠ Javelina and other peccaries

⚠ Beavers and nutrias

⚠ Muskrats

⚠ Raccoons

⚠ Opposums

⚠ Porcupines

⚠ Armadillos


⚠ Bears

⚠ Coyotes and foxes

⚠ Wild pigs (feral swine)

⚠ Guinea pigs

⚠ Seals

⚠ Pork rinds

Some Mammals Eaten in Latin America

⚠ Capybaras

⚠ Monkeys

⚠ Peccaries

⚠ Agoutis

⚠ Guinea pigs

⚠ Guinea pigs

⚠ Tapirs

⚠ Pacas

⚠ Javelinas

⚠ Alpacas

⚠ Armadillos

⚠ Brocket deer

Some Mammals Eaten in Europe

⚠ Horses

⚠ Wild boar

⚠ European hares

⚠ Elk (moose)

⚠ Alpine marmots

⚠ Seals

⚠ Roe deer

⚠ Bears

⚠ Red deer

⚠ Kidneys

⚠ Whales

⚠ Blood pudding

Some Mammals Eaten in Africa

⚠ Antelopes

⚠ Camels

⚠ Warthogs

⚠ African buffalo

⚠ Hippopotamus

⚠ Porcupines

⚠ Duikers

⚠ Cane rat stew

Some Mammals Eaten in Asia, Australia, or Pacific Nations

⚠ Kangaroos

⚠ Rats and other rodents

⚠ Guar

⚠ Banteng

⚠ Water buffalo

⚠ Whales

⚠ Bats

⚠ Bats in a market

Some Mammal Pets

Most people with alpha-gal syndrome can keep mammal pets, like cats and dogs. Some are bothered by their saliva and/or dander. Some people report that feeding their pet vegetarian pet food helps reduce their reactions to their saliva. 

⚠ Cats and dogs

⚠ Rats and other rodents

⚠ Rabbits

⚠ Guinea pigs

Animals that Are NOT Mammals

Animals that do NOT produce milk to feed their young are NOT mammals. This includes animals with feathers (birds) and scales (fish and reptiles) and amphibians, like frogs.

People with alpha-gal syndrome can eat these animals and their eggs, except for flounder eggs.

Poultry and other birds are NOT mammals.

✅ Chickens

✅ Turkeys

✅ Ducks

✅ Guinea fowl

✅ Chicken, ducks, and other bird eggs

✅ Turkeys

Fish, amphibians (like frogs and salamanders), and reptiles (like alligators, snakes, and turtles) are NOT mammals. 

✅ Fish

✅ Frogs

✅ Fish eggs, except for flounder roe

✅ Alligators and other crocodilians




  Flounder eggs

Warning: people with AGS may also be allergic to flounder eggs *

✅ Turtles

*Researchers in Japan found that a large percentage of people with red meat allergy are also allergic to flounder roe (1)(2). It’s not clear why. 

Invertebrates, like crustaceans (shrimp, lobster, crawfish), molluscs (oysters, clams, mussels),  and insects are not mammals.

✅ Fish

✅ Lobsters and langoustines

✅ Oysters

✅ Shrimp and prawns

✅ Octopus

✅ Mussels

✅ Grasshoppers

✅ Crabs

✅ Calamari (squid)

✅ Snails and other gastropods

✅ Mopane worms (caterpillars)

✅ Crawfish

✅ Clams

✅ Uni (sea urchin roe)

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